The 14 Clauses of the Canadian Code of Advertising Standards
The Canadian Code of Advertising Standards (Code) is comprised of 14 Clauses. These clauses, supported by
Interpretation Guidelines, set the criteria for acceptable advertising. They span the following areas:
- Accuracy and Clarity
- Disguised Advertising Techniques
- Price Claims
- Bait and Switch
- Comparative Advertising
- Professional or Scientific Claims
- Superstition and Fears
- Advertising to Children
- Advertising to Minors
- Unacceptable Depictions and Portrayals
1. Accuracy and Clarity
In assessing the truthfulness and accuracy of a message, advertising claim or representation under Clause 1
of the Code the concern is not with the intent of the sender or precise legality of the presentation. Rather
the focus is on the message, claim or representation as received or perceived, i.e. the general impression
conveyed by the advertisement.
(a) Advertisements must not contain inaccurate, deceptive or otherwise misleading claims, statements,
illustrations or representations, either direct or implied, with regard to any identified or identifiable
product(s) or service(s).
(b) Advertisements must not omit relevant information in a manner that, in the result, is deceptive.
(c) All pertinent details of an advertised offer must be clearly and understandably stated.
(d) Disclaimers and asterisked or footnoted information must not contradict more prominent aspects of the
message and should be located and presented in such a manner as to be clearly visible and/or audible.
(e) Both in principle and practice, all advertising claims and representations must be supportable. If the
support on which an advertised claim or representation depends is test or survey data, such data must be
reasonably competent and reliable, reflecting accepted principles of research design and execution that
characterize the current state of the art. At the same time, however, such research should be economically
and technically feasible, with due recognition of the various costs of doing business.
(f) The advertiser must be clearly identified in an advocacy advertisement.
2. Disguised Advertising Techniques
No advertisement shall be presented in a format or style that conceals its commercial intent.
3. Price Claims
(a) No advertisement shall include deceptive price claims or discounts, unrealistic price comparisons
or exaggerated claims as to worth or value. "Regular Price", "Suggested Retail Price", "Manufacturer’s List
Price" and "Fair Market Value" are deceptive terms when used by an advertiser to indicate a savings,
unless they represent prices at which, in the market place where the advertisement appears, the advertiser
actually sold a substantial volume of the advertised product or service within a reasonable period of time
(such as six months) immediately before or after making the representation in the advertisement; or offered
the product or service for sale in good faith for a substantial period of time (such as six months)
immediately before or after making the representation in the advertisement.
(b) Where price discounts are offered, qualifying statements such as "up to", "XX off", etc., must be in
easily readable type, in close proximity to the prices quoted and, where practical, legitimate regular
prices must be included.
(c) Prices quoted in advertisements in Canadian media, other than in Canadian funds, must be so identified.
4. Bait and Switch
Advertisements must not misrepresent the consumer’s opportunity to purchase the goods and services at the terms
presented. If supply of the sale item is limited, or the seller can fulfil only limited demand, this must be clearly
stated in the advertisement.
No advertisement shall offer a guarantee or warranty, unless the guarantee or warranty is fully explained as to conditions
and limits and the name of the guarantor or warrantor is provided, or it is indicated where such information may be obtained.
6. Comparative Advertising
Advertisements must not, unfairly, discredit, disparage or attack one or more products, services,
advertisements, companies or entities, or exaggerate the nature or importance of competitive differences.
Testimonials, endorsements or representations of opinion or preference, must reflect the genuine, reasonably
current opinion of the individual(s), group or organization making such representations, and must be based upon
adequate information about or experience with the product or service being advertised, and must not otherwise be
8. Professional or Scientific Claims
Advertisements must not distort the true meaning of statements made by professionals or scientific authorities.
Advertising claims must not imply that they have a scientific basis that they do not truly possess. Any scientific,
professional or authoritative claims or statements must be applicable to the Canadian context, unless otherwise
No advertiser shall imitate the copy, slogans or illustrations of another advertiser in such a manner as to mislead the consumer.
Advertisements must not without reason, justifiable on educational or social grounds, display a disregard for
safety by depicting situations that might reasonably be interpreted as encouraging unsafe or dangerous practices, or acts.
11. Superstitions and Fears
Advertisements must not exploit superstitions or play upon fears to mislead the consumer.
12. Advertising to Children
Advertising that is directed to children must not exploit their credulity, lack of experience
or their sense of loyalty, and must not present information or illustrations that might result in
their physical, emotional or moral harm.
Child-directed advertising in the broadcast media is separately regulated by the Broadcast Code for
Advertising to Children, also administered by ASC. Advertising to children in Quebec is prohibited
by the Quebec Consumer Protection Act.
13. Advertising to Minors
Products prohibited from sale to minors must not be advertised in such a way as to appeal particularly to persons
under legal age, and people featured in advertisements for such products must be, and clearly seen to be, adults under the law.
14. Unacceptable Depictions and Portrayals
It is recognized that advertisements may be distasteful without necessarily conflicting with the provisions of this
Clause 14; and the fact that a particular product or service may be offensive to some people is not sufficient grounds
for objecting to an advertisement for that product or service.
Advertisements shall not:
(a) condone any form of personal discrimination, including that based upon race, national origin, religion, sex or age;
(b) appear in a realistic manner to exploit, condone or incite violence; nor appear to condone, or directly
encourage, bullying; nor directly encourage, or exhibit obvious indifference to, unlawful behaviour;
(c) demean, denigrate or disparage one or more identifiable persons, group of persons, firms, organizations,
industrial or commercial activities, professions, entities, products or services, or attempt to bring it or
them into public contempt or ridicule;
(d) undermine human dignity; or display obvious indifference to, or encourage, gratuitously and without merit,
conduct or attitudes that offend the standards of public decency prevailing among a significant segment of the population.